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Disaster Risk Reduction in Greater Mumbai Project
April 2009 - March 2011
Location: Mumbai India
Sponsored by: Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM)

Project Summary

 EMI, with its Cluster City Project partner, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) jointly implemented a project on reducing the risk inflicted by natural disasters in Greater Mumbai. The Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Greater Mumbai Project, which commenced in April 2009 and ended in March 2011, has closed the city’s institutional gaps in managing disaster risks and equipped the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) and other stakeholders in Mumbai with the following key elements:

Utilizing a participatory approach in the development of Mumbai’s Disaster Risk Management Master Plan (DRMMP)

  • Setting up of an internal competent structure for Emergency and Crisis Management for Mumbai under the leadership of Greater Mumbai Disaster Management Authority.

The aim of this project is to put in place the processes and mechanisms and build the competency of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) on Emergency and Crisis Management. Another aim is to build the resiliency of the city by developing the Disaster Risk Management Master Plan that provides the framework for strategies, actions, and priorities by the city in reducing its risks to disasters. A total of 118 stakeholders were involved in this project.

 Project Objectives

The main goals of the project are:

To institutionalize a disaster risk management practice, operation and function for Mumbai by which hazards, vulnerability and risk are understood and competently managed;

  1. To establish a competent emergency management system for Mumbai based on international standards of practice and a scientific analysis of the risks to the city;
  2. To develop a coherent set of recommendations “how-to” actions for implementation to reduce disaster risk within Mumbai; and
  3. To build local experience and expertise so that the DRMMP model for Mumbai can be replicated in other cities in the State of Maharashtra and across India.


 Mainstreaming And Related Approaches
In developing these elements, the Project has established a disaster risk management (DRM) process that was anchored on a participatory and scientific approach, and was founded on international standards of practice. Such scientific and evidence-based approach is proven to effectively bring tangible results when implemented with discipline and rigor. EMI also develops and utilizes available tools for the project that are grounded in science particularly the science of risk management.

emi mainstreaming model

Mainstreaming is another key approach by EMI in accomplishing urban disaster risk reduction for Mumbai. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) refers to the process of incorporating the practice of risk management within the governance, functions and operations of public and private institutions. For local authorities, this translates to having processes and practices that inherently incorporate urban risk reduction (URR) in the key functions that they undertake such as land use and urban development planning, construction and building licensing, environmental management, social welfare as well as in the services that they provide or regulate.

EMI’s concept of mainstreaming recognizes:

Central authorities coordinating policies, regulations, and resources;

  • Civil society participation; and
  • Local implementation of disaster risk reduction.

The participatory approach is at the core of mainstreaming DRR practice.  By nature, it facilitates the communication of risk, the development of local ownership, and the inter-sectoral coordination among stakeholders. All key departments and functions of a city must be part of the development of a local DRM practice and its related strategic planning, and action planning processes.

When carried out within the context of a participatory, functional and organized governance framework, mainstreaming presents a viable and sustainable approach towards developing a culture of prevention and improving the management of disaster risks.


The Project’s flagship product—the DRMMP, is an analytical model developed by EMI to guide local authorities and their local partner institutions in mainstreaming and developing a DRM master plan. This consists of strategies, policies, actions and processes. This comprehensive plan is formulated through a participatory process of data provision and validation of information, anchored in the science of risk management while taking into account the sustainability of the plan. The development of the DRRMP relies in great part on input, data, and mobilization of resources, engagement and leadership from MCGM, local experts, and key stakeholders.

Capacity Building Activities

EMI conducted training activities on DRR and EM. Existing EMI Training Modules were customized to suit the needs in Mumbai. A Training Needs Assessment (TNA) for the different key areas in mainstreaming DRR for Greater Mumbai was conducted. The TNA Report also includes the capacity building framework and typology of training programs for the personnel, and middle and high level officials involved in the different key areas.

Project Accomplishments/Deliverables

  • High resolution flood and earthquake risk assessment for Greater Mumbai
  • Disaster Risk Management Master Plan (DRMMP) composed of a coherent set of objectives, recommendations, actions and strategies to reduce disaster risk within Mumbai with a framework for implementation;
  • Establishment of a city-wide Emergency Management Framework based on international standards;
  • Built capacity of city officials, representatives of state agencies, and other relevant stakeholders in the city on international standards of practice in emergency management
  • Institutionalization of Disaster Risk Management practice within MCGM by which hazards, vulnerability and risks are understood and operationalized into functions and operations;
  • Built experience and expertise within the country so that the DRMMP model for Mumbai can be duplicated in other cities within the State of Maharashtra and the rest of the country
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